The course aims at presenting the latest theoretical and empirical developments in regulation economics. We briefly discuss the theoretical foundations of regulation. Based on the regulation of network industries, we then examine the recent literature focusing on the implementation problems that have appeared in practice and how they are analyzed in theory. We focus on various regulatory tools that have raised efficiency problems such as: auction and other procurement procedures used to organize competition for the market, benchmarking and yardstick regulation, tariff regulation. We also examine issues linked to governance issues such as regulator's independence and powers, corruption and lobbying, complementarities vs. substituability among various regulators, political aspects of regulation and the evaluation of regulatory efficiency.