S2P - Séminaire Politiques Publiques
Maison des Sciences Economiques
106-112 bd de l'Hôpital - 75013 Paris
Maison des Sciences Economiques
106-112 bd de l'Hôpital - 75013 Paris
Jean Beuve - Jean.Beuve@univ-paris1.fr
Sophie Bienenstock - Sophie.Bienenstock@univ-paris1.fr
Christine Benesch, Mark Schelker (speaker), Rino Heim et Lukas Schmid
Abstract. We analyze how the introduction of the voting advice application (VAA) smartvote affects voter turnout, voting behavior, and electoral outcomes. The Swiss context offers an ideal setting to identify the causal effects of online information with aggregate real world data because smartvote was introduced in different cantons at different points in time. In contrast to previous experimental studies, we find that smartvote does not affect turnout but that voters more actively select candidates instead of parties by splitting their ballot. Our findings suggest that no specific parties seem to benefit from the change in voting behavior and we find no effects on aggregate electoral outcomes.Papier disponible sur demande
Jean Beuve (Université Paris 1) et Zoé Le Squeren (Université de Lille)
Abstract. In private markets, firms may find it profitable to strategically exacerbate consumers’ difficulties to compare offers through strategic confusion in order to increase their market power; such situations are described as “confusopolies”. Does this phenomenon of strategic confusion, which is highly common in private markets, exist in the case of public services? In other words, can elected officials make their public policy more difficult to evaluate and compare, to gain power on the electoral market? In this paper, we argue that confusion can be a fitting tool for political authorities to hide unpopular decisions. Indeed, by sending conflicting signals, decision-makers limit the analytical capacity of their constituents to estimate the impact of some policies. Using a comprehensive set of French cities for a standard service and relying on a quasi-natural experiment, we explore the link between political competition and strategic confusion. Our results show that mayors who face strong political competition are more likely to use strategic confusion, i.e. they have a strategic interest in making a reform ambiguous in order to limit its political weight.
Culture and constitutional compliance
Speaker: Stefan Voigt, Institute of Law & Economics, University of Hamburg
Discussant: Sophie Bienenstock, CES, UP1
MSE, 106 bd de l’hôpital, 75013 Paris
La journée se déroule exclusivement en présentiel.
14h-15h30 La réforme des universités
Performance sociale, financement
et réformes de l'enseignement supérieur,
Presses de Sciences Po, 2017
Sciences Po Grenoble
Abstract: In the sense of Spence (1973), education sends a signal to the labor market which helps to reveal the ability of former students. Delayed graduation is usually perceived as a negative signal, leading to lower wages and employment rates. This paper tests for the presence of heterogeneous effects of the signal sent by delayed graduation in higher education (post-high school diploma). These effects are measured on the rate of employment and average wages at individuals’ entry into the labor market. I analyze if the heterogeneous structure of the effects is conditional on individuals’ characteristics such as diploma, social origin, or gender. I use the generalized random forest algorithm with an instrumental setting to estimate individual Conditional Average Treatment Effects. In line with the literature, I find a negative effect of delayed graduation on the rate of employment. However, this effect is heterogeneous across individuals, ranging from -60% to -10%. As expected I find a subgroup with negative treatment effects on average wages, but also individuals benefiting from delayed graduation with a positive treatment effect. The individual treatment effects on monthly average wages range from -350€ to around 200€. Gender does not affect the heterogeneous effects on the rate of employment but does influence the effects on average wages. Study duration and field affect both indicators. The social origin (parents’ occupation) also plays a crucial role in determining the individual treatment effect on the rate of employment and average wages.
Abstract: The International Criminal Court (ICC) was launched in 2002 with the
purpose of fighting impunity and deterring the commission of international
crimes. In this paper, we investigate whether the ICC effectively deters ruling
leaders and criminal groups under its jurisdiction from engaging in egregious
violence against civilians. We exploit civilian killings data from a panel of
176 countries over the period 1989-2019 during which 123 countries
incrementally decided to ratify the Rome Statute and recognize the jurisdiction
of the ICC, while others never did. Due to the strong suspicion of endogeneity
of the ratification process, we rely on flexible panel data models with
interactive fixed effects to account for potentially complex country-specific trends.
We find no evidence of any deterrence in the full sample of countries. However,
we find that the probability and intensity of civilian killings by
non-governmental forces decreases quite substantially after ratification in
high-risk countries, i.e. countries that were marked by civil violence and weak
institutions in the 1990s. Conversely, civilian killings by governmental forces
appear unaffected by the ICC even in high-risk countries, a pattern that is
consistent with the institutional fragility of the Court.
Co-author: Benjamin Monnery, EconomiX
Abstract: An increase in the legal limit of THC has de facto opened the market for light cannabis in many European countries. CBD products are attractive to consumer given their content of CBD which is a non-psychoactive compound. Despite the hype of this market, there is a substantial lack of information on consumers’ attitudes and motivations toward CBD products. Through an ad-hoc online survey, the first cross-national study was performed to investigate the characteristics of French and Italian users of light cannabis. The survey moves from a previous data collection conducted in Switzerland identifying the mechanisms behind the substitution effect and consumption preferences and focusing on flowers as the main mode of consumption. The results indicate that one out of three CBD users substitute other substances. The reduction in consumption is more prevalent for regular cannabis, tobacco and medications (about one out of 6 users), than for alcohol. CBD use helps to reduce alcohol consumption mostly among older males with a long experience with CBD. Whereas sublingual oils are more likely to be used to substitute medicines, smoking flowers is the favourite mean of substitution for tobacco and regular cannabis. Consumers who substitute regular cannabis show a preference for a diversification of varieties, which does not occur among those who substitute tobacco. Overall, the motivations behind consumption determine differential preferences across CBD consumers. This calls for a rethinking of the most adequate distribution channels for specific CBD products based on the purpose of use. The goal should be to maximize access by providing a differential degree of quality and taxation across the different supply channels based on the expected externality.
Abstract: We document the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance
impact on fiscal sustainability. Using data on 24 OECD countries from 1998-2015
we assess the impact of extra-financial performances, created using a two-step
Principal Component Analysis, on the fiscal reaction function and the fiscal
space. First, we find robust evidence that countries under fiscal pressure tend
to underperform in ESG and that ESG performance can be a burden on fiscal
policies. Second, we compute a time-varying fiscal space and show that overall
ESG performance increases fiscal space. Methodologically, we show that complex
fiscal space values resulting from solving the model provide crucial
information in assessing fiscal sustainability and they should not be ignored.
For this purpose, we provide 3 different scenarios to deal with complex numbers
in an empirical framework.
Co-author: Marc-Arthur Diaye
→ programme 2019-2020
Mardi 10 mars,
17h-19h, Salle 17
Gini and Optimal Income Taxation by Rank
Laurent Simula, U. Lyon, ENS Lyon & GATE (en coll. avec A. Trannoy, AMSE)
→ Télécharger le papier
Discutant : Antoine d'Autume, PSE
Séances précédentes :
Mardi 4 février,
17h-19h, Salle 17
Six hypothèses socioéconomiques pour définir la confiance sociale appliquées aux monnaies locales
Jean-Michel Servet, Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales et du Développement, Genève
→ Télécharger la présentation
→ Télécharger le texte complémentaire sur la confiance en général
Discutant : Pierre Alary, CLERSE, U. Lille, & CASE, EHESS
Mardi 28 janvier 2020,
17h-19h, Salle 17
Objects of political and social trust: Scales and hierarchies
Sonja Zmerli, Sc Po Grenoble (en coll. avec Ken Newton)
→ Télécharger l'article
Mardi 5 novembre 2019, 17h-19h, Salle du 6e étage
Social capital, government expenditure and growth
Giacomo Ponzetto, CREI U. Pompeu Fabra (en coll. avec U. Troiano)
Discutant : Mickaël Melki
Les trois formes de confiance dans la monnaie
André Orléan, PSE
Discutant : Christian de Boissieu, CES
Mardi 17 Septembre 2019, 17h-19h, Salle 18
Est-ce que la confiance peut expliquer le niveau et la structure de l’épargne des ménages dans les pays de l’OCDE ?
Kevin Brookes, UP1, Fondation Panthéon-Sorbonne, et François Facchini, CES
Mardi 24 Septembre 2019, 17h-19h, Salle 18
Does Trust Influence Social Expenditures? Evidence from Local Governments
Pietro Tommasino*, Bank of Italy (en coll. avec Silvia Camussi et Anna Laura Mancini)
Discutant(e) : Marc Arthur Diaye (Prof. des Universités, CES Paris 1)
Abstract : We document that trust has a positive impact on the generosity of welfare spending. Our analysis relies on a unique dataset including detailed budgetary data of more than 2,000 Italian municipalities. Compared wit previous contributions based on cross-country data, our approach reduces the risk of omitted variable bias and measurement errors. Furthermore, drawing on Italy’s rich political history, we are able to use an instrumental variables strategy that addresses the possible endogeneity of trust.
Published in KYKLOS ,Vol. 71 – February 2018 – No. 1, 59–85
Mardi 13 novembre
2018, 17h-19h, salle 114
La dette et la monnaie – Les leçons de la crise des dettes souveraines en zone euro
Xavier Timbeau, OFCE
Discutant : Jean-Marc Daniel, ESCP
Mardi 20 novembre 2018, 17h-19h, salle 114
Noel Johnson, U. George Mason (en coll. avec Remi Jedwab et Mark Koyama)
Discutant : Hillel Rapoport, PSE
Abstract : The Black Death killed about 40% of Europe’s population between 1347-1352. Historical studies suggest that this mortality shock played a major role in shifting Europe onto a path to sustained economic growth. Using a novel dataset that provides information on spatial variation in plague mortality at the city level, as well as a range of controls and various identification strategies based on the spread of the epidemic, we explore the short-run and long-run impact of the Black Death on city growth. We find evidence for aggregate convergence. On average, cities recovered their pre-plague population within two centuries. However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the response to the shock, hence local divergence. The Black Death led to an urban reset: cities with better geographical and non-geographical endowments did relatively well, while other cities collapsed. In particular, our results emphasize the importance of trading networks in explaining urban recovery. Furthermore, the Black Death led to the creation of new cities in areas that were relatively less urbanized before it hit. Our analysis thus suggests that the Black Death may have permanently affected the spatial distribution and aggregate level of economic activity, potentially contributing to long-run growth in Europe.
Mardi 27 Novembre 2018, 17h-19h, salle 114
La réforme du financement de l’hôpital public
Lise Rochaix, Hospinnomics - PSE
Discutante : Sophie Massin, LEM, U. Artois, & CES
décembre 2018, 17h-19h, salle 114
Editions Fayard, 2018
Julia Cagé, Sciences Po Paris
Discutant : François Facchini, CES
Mardi 15 janvier 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Autour d’un salaire maximum ?
Philippe Askenazy, Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CNRS-EHESS-ENS)
Discussion introduite par Christine Ehrel (CNAM, Paris)
Mardi 29 janvier 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
La crédibilité de la monnaie dans une économie monétaire de production
Jonathan Massonnet, Haute Ecole de Gestion, Genève (en coll. avec Sergio Rossi, U. Fribourg, et S. Virely, U. Bourgogne)
Discussion introduite par Alfonso Giuliani (CES, Paris 1)
Mardi 05 février 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Warfare’s ecological footprint: A Synthetic Control (SCM) approach with data from the Falkland Islands (avec S. Panel)
Antoine Pietri (Ministère de la Défense) (en coll. avec S. Panel)
Discutant : Luigi Moretti (CES, Paris 1)
Mardi 12 février 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Les moteurs du développement territorial
André Torre, INRA
→ Télécharger l'article (RERU, oct 2018)
Discutantes :Dorine Cornet, CES & Mairie de Paris, et Patricia Vornetti, CES
Résumé : Cet article propose une analyse des deux moteurs du développement territorial : les processus de production et de gouvernance. Il examine leurs caractéristiques, leur fonctionnement et le rôle qu’ils jouent dans la mise en place des mécanismes de développement. Les modalités de création des innovations territoriales de différentes natures (technologiques, organisationnelles, sociales et institutionnelles) sont également étudiées. Le texte commence par un bilan de littérature et d’expériences sur les notions de gouvernance et de production au niveau territorial, suivi par une analyse de leurs modalités de fabrication des innovations territoriales. Pour finir, les mécanismes du développement territorial sont décrits sous forme de schémas, en s’appuyant sur trois options possibles : la loyauté ou la coopération, la prise de parole ou la concurrence, l’exit spatial ou la délocalisation.
Mardi 19 février
2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Civic Engagement and State Provision of Public Goods: An Experiment
Abstract: Effective states solve the problem of financing the provision of public goods by mandating contributions in the form of taxes and imposing penalties for non-compliance. However, government might tax and provide public goods accountably only if enough citizens are civically engaged. We study the voluntary cooperative underpinnings of the accountable sanction-imposing state by conducting a two-level public goods experiment in which civic engagement can build a sanction scheme to solve the first order public goods dilemma. We find that when civic engagement costs are low relative to the benefits of public good provision, the overall dilemma problem is tractable, though it is never privately profitable to civically engage. In addition to a small average cost-to-benefit ratio, local social interaction among participants boosts cooperation.Jean-Robert Tyran, U. Vienna
→ Télécharger le papier
Abstract : We provide a new measure of work motivation and show that motivation shapes the effects of team incentives and observation by peers on performance. In particular, we measure motivation to work hard as the deviation from the money-maximizing benchmark in a real-effort experiment. While we find that average output increases in response to team incentives and observation, we find that highly motivated workers do not respond. The reason is that highly motivated workers already work hard and increasing effort even further is very costly to them.
Mardi 26 février 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Mardi 19 mars 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Elections systems, the beauty premium in politics, and the beauty of dissent
Mardi 26 mars 2019, 17h-19h, salle 114
Autour du livre
Moral disagreements in Business. An exploratory introduction
Marian Eabrasu, South Champagne Business School
Springer, sept 2018
Abstract: This book disassembles the moral assessment of business practices into its constituent parts to identify and clarify the four key concepts that form the basis of important moral disagreements in business: ‘personhood,’ ‘ownership,’ ‘harm,’ and ‘consent.’ ‘Moral bottom lines’ are those fundamental concepts in business ethics that ultimately account for our most resilient moral claims and unsurpassable convictions, and exploring them provides essential insights into the grounds on which we disagree in business ethics. This analysis is useful for students in business school looking to understand fundamental moral disagreements in business and for practitioners interested in connecting practice with their own moral intuitions. The book also challenges scholars of business ethics by arguing that we can reduce business ethics disagreements to these four issues.
La discussion sera introduite par Emmanuel Picavet, NoSoPhi, U. Paris 1
Mardi 16 avril 2019, 17h-19h, salle 116
The Politics of Experimentation: Political Competition and Randomized Controlled Trials
Michael T. Dorsch, Central European University. Budapest (co-auteurs : Cristina Corduneanu-Huci et Paul Maarek)
This paper provides an analysis of the political factors that might aﬀect the location of Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) experiments in public policy. We ﬁrst review some of the potential supply and demand-side channels of site selection, and then focus on the role of domestic political competition in determining when decision makers are interested in policy learning. We argue that more competitive political environments, where incumbents face a higher probability of losing power, strengthen the incentives of bureaucrats and politicians to run RCTs. We also introduce a unique data set on development RCTs that we have compiled. Over a cross-national panel and a panel of Indian states, we ﬁnd that RCTs testing accountability interventions or involving the government as a partner are more likely to occur in politically competitive jurisdictions. Other types of ﬁeld experiments are less sensitive to context. Results are statistically robust to estimation with instrumental variables, alternative speciﬁcations, and on larger datasets of development RCTs. We suggest that the political context matters for when, where, and with which partners policy RCTs happen.
La discussion sera introduite par Jean Cartier-Bresson, CEMOTEV, U. Versailles
Maison des Sciences Economiques - 106-112 bd de l'Hôpital - 75013 Paris
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